Cesarean sections are one of the most common surgical operations. Postpartum anemia is a prevalent side-effect, and has been linked to postpartum depression, fatigue and other impaired cognitive functions. In a recent study published by Transfusion, researchers analyzed data from over 70,000 women after cesarean sections performed between 2005 and 2013 to determine risk factors for postpartum anemia. Overall, 7.3% of women developed severe postpartum anemia (hemoglobin [Hb]<8.0 g/dl). Risk factors for postpartum anemia included postpartum hemorrhage (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=8.45; [95% CI, 7.8-9.16]) and predelivery anemia (Hb= 10-10.9 g/dL, aOR=5.38; [95%CI, 4.89-5.91]; and Hb<10 g/dL, aOR=30.6; [95% CI, 27.1-34.6]). Since no guidelines currently exist for postpartum anemia, women who have a cesarean section with postpartum hemorrhage, predelivery anemia, or no predelivery hemoglobin level should be screened approximately one week after delivery.